Anolyte System Troubleshooting for One+ C-Cell


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Think and act in a safe manner. Always disconnect power and use a lockout before you work on the E-coat system, or any of the related subsystems. Observe any confined space conditions. Use the appropriate safety equipment and clothing for the task. Please carefully read all the instructions listed below to familiarize yourself with the project before attempting to perform any of the work.


Problem Possible Cause(s) Remedy

Cloudy or Paint-Colored Anolyte from all Cells

  1. Cut, torn, or ripped Membrane ShellInstalled dry.
  2. Overspray or splash.
  3. Loose anolyte supply connection at   bottom of cell.
  1. Turn off anolyte pump and use flashlight to locate liquid inside the Cell.  Cells with a low level should be pulled for further investigation.
  2. Install splash guards.
  3. Reconnect with 316 marine clamp.


Anolyte Color Change

  1. Paint contamination.
  2. Dark color (like coffee) usually is from rapid deterioration of stainless steel electrodes.
  3. D.I. Water solenoid valve is not adding water to the anolyte tank.


  1. See I & VII.
  2. Reduce level of contaminants by dumping anolyte tank, lower conductivity set point and have anolyte checked for chlorides.
  3. Check conductivity controller, conductivity sensor, solenoid valve, and D.I. Water supply.

Left blank intentionally 


No anolyte return from a Cell

  1. No supply.
  2. Blockage at bottom of Cell.
  3. Vacuum lock in return manifold.
  1. See V, VI, & VII.
  2. Use 1/3 br (5 psi) air line connected to supply tubing to gently clear obstructions.
  3. Increase vent opening or add breather stand pipe.

Anolyte overflowing from top of cel

  1. Cell overflow nozzle blocked.
  2. Return tubing kinked.
  3. Blocked strainer bag.
  1. Clean or remove obstruction.
  2. Shorten or lengthen as appropriate.
  3. Clean.

Anolyte supply pump not operating

  1. No electrical supply.
  2. Lost prime.
  3. Blocked suction.
  4. Cavitation
  5. Pump/impeller motor failure.
  1. Check controls, connections, fuses.
  2. Reprime pump, check anolyte tank level.
  3. Clear obstruction
  4. Check suctions piping for possible air leaks.
  5. Replace failed device.
No Anolyte supply to a Cell.
  1. See V.
  2. Discharge control valve turned off.
  3. Blocked or broken supply manifold.
  4. Blocked 1/2” individual Cell supply valve.
  5. Rotometer float stuck in “up” or pegged position.
  6. Plugged anolyte bag filter.
  7. Kinked supply tubing.
  1. Open
  2. Clear obstruction or repair as needed.
  3. Clear obstruction.
  4. Partially close discharge control valve, recheck individual Cell flows and fully open discharge control valve afterwards.  Replace rotometer if range is too low.
  5. Replace at 1/3 to 2/3 bar (5-10 psi) differential.
  6. Replace supply tubing if necessary.

Leaking Cell

  1. Membrane Cut from fallen work or from fishing work out of tank.
  2. Abrasion from another object in paint tank.
  1. Immediately isolate Cell by closing supply valve and disconnecting cable lead.    Remove Cell and rinse inside and out.  Do not let dry out.  Fill Membrane Shell with D.I. Water.  Place in 55 gallon drum (secured to hoist) and measure volume of leak for one hour (record every 15 minutes).
  2. Move Cells so that there is at least 150 mm (3”) of side to side clearance.

Broken PVC channel.

  1. Dropping cell onto floor.
  1. Perform leak check to see if joint is leaking.  Contact UFS if leak is found.

Low Anolyte Tank Level

  1. Drain valve open.
  2. Evaporation loss.
  3. Membrane permeability.
  4. Cut membrane.
  5. Malfunction in siphon-breaker (pump has to fill all Cells first).
  6. Return manifold blocked.
  7. Manifold leak.
  8. Cell overflowing out top.
  1. Completely close drain valve.
  2. Normal
  3. Normal
  4. See VII
  5. Check siphon-breaker
  6. Clear
  7. Check all piping.
  8. See XII

Bacteria/Fungus Growth


From D.I. Water or other source


  1. Have sample analyzed.
  2. Add UV light to D.I. Water system.
  3. Raise conductivity to 1,800—2,000 µMho/cm.  Get paint vendor approval first.
  4. Use approved biocides.
  5. Consult with local water treatment and D.I. Water system vendor.

Paint solids build up on outside of C-Cell.

  1. Reverse electric current flow in a multi-zone tank.
  2. Loss of anolyte flow (no cooling).
  3. Loose electrical connection (more resistance).
  1. Add diodes to Zone 1 Cells and clean Membrane Shells as required.
  2. Look for kinking of anolyte tube, etc. Clean
  3. Tighten bolted bolts. Clean.

Cell overflowing top.

  1. Blocked overflow nozzle.
  2. Vacuum lock in return manifold
  3. Too much anolyte flow into Cell via supply tubing.
  4. Tubing stuck too far into manifold.
  1. Clear obstruction.
  2. Increase vent opening or add breather stand pipe.
  3. Measure flow and adjust individual 1/2” valve as needed.
  4. Cut end at 45-degree angle and stick only 25mm (1”) into return manifold

Paint/rinse entering top of Cell.

Spray rinse or paint dripping from work.


  1. Use splash guard.

Low rectifier current output.

  1. Loose bus bar or Anode tab connections.
  2. Poor grounding contact.
  3. Fouled Membrane Shell / Anode.
  4. Low paint or anolyte conductivity.
  5. Rectifier problem.
  6. Blown fuse to Cell.
  1. Tighten as required.
  2. Clean/replace contacts. Clean racks.
  3. Clean as required.
  4. Investigate.
  5. Investigate.
  6. Repair/replace as necessary.

Low individual Cell electric current draw.

  1. Loose connection.
  2. Corrosion at Anode tab.
  3. High current density.
  4. Not filled with anolyte.
  5. Anode is worn away.
  6. See XIV.
  1. Compression washer should be flat.
  2. Use only stainless steel hardware.
  3. Replace Membrane Shell.
  4. Confirm proper slope to insure Cell does not fill with oxygen gas bubbles.
  5. Replace Cell

Low pump pressure.

  1. Backwards motor rotation.
  2. Loose impeller.
  3. Blocked suction piping.
  4. Lost pump prime.
  5. Wide-open by-pass valve.
  1. Change phase connections.
  2. Adjust clearances as necessary.
  3. Clear.
  4. Prime pump.
  5. Close valve until about 4 lpm (1gpm) goes through by-passing piping.

Low pump flow.

  1. Closed valves.
  2. Blocked supply manifold.
  3. Supply manifold too small.
  4. Pump capacity.
  5. See V.
  1. Adjust.
  2. Clear.
  3. Increase size.
  4. Check specifications of pump against recommended flow / pressure rates.

High anolyte conductivity.

  1. Sensor malfunction.
  2. Set point too high.
  3. Controller malfunction.
  4. D.I. Water valve malfunction.
  5. See XIX
  1. Inspect and clean.
  2. Adjust.
  3. Test and calibrate or repair.  Read controller manufacturers’ manual.
  4. Investigate.


Low anolyte tank level.

  1. Evaporation
  2. Open tank drain.
  3. Malfunctioning siphon breaker.
  4. See XXII, IV, XIII
  1. Add more D.I. Water.
  2. Close valve.
  3. Inspect and repair.

Conductivity controller malfunction.

  1. Blown fuse.
  2. Sensor.
  3. Relay contacts.
  4. General failure.
  1. Check for continuity.
  2. Clean and check for alignment with flow.
  3. Check for continuity.
  4. See manufacturers’ manual.

|Back cover is cut or torn.

  1. Handling.
  1. Cover the exposed stainless steel anode plate with 2 part epoxy to insulate from e-coat bath.

Low anolyte conductivity.

  1. D.I. Water valve stuck open.
  2. Tank has been recently filled with D.I. Water.
  3. See XIX.
  1. Investigate
  2. Add enough acid to raise conductivity to 80% of normal specifications.

Membrane sweating (observed with paint tank empty.)

  1. Condensation due to humidity.
  2. Membrane permeability.
  1. Normal.
  2. If excess, check rate for an hour, measuring every 15 minutes. Contact UFS.

Anolyte overflowing rim of anolyte tank.

  1. Blocked overflow/skimmer.
  1. Clear skimmer and piping.

Cell does not hang straight.

  1. Square bar stock is not straight.
  1. Fix universal bracket accordingly.

XXV. Increased levels of dirt bits in the E-Coat bath.

  1. Failed diode.
  2. Loose electrical connection.
  1. Check with diode tester and replace as needed.
  2. Tighten as needed.


One+ C-Cell Ammeter Log

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One+ C-Cell Maintenance Log

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